Latvia

by Thomas Jensen
  • Capital: Riga
  • Population: 1.83 million (2021, Eurostat)
  • GDP: €29.5 billion (2020, Eurostat)
  • GDP/capita: €15 530 (2020, Eurostat)
Latvia

Overview of the Latvian fisheries and aquaculture sector 

LAV FishThe Republic of Latvia is situated in northeast Europe, on the eastern coast of the Baltic Sea. Latvia has a coastline of 498 km, which is 6.3% of the Baltic Sea’s 5 000 km coastline. Inland waters cover 2 479 km², or 3.8% of the country’s territory. Riga, Ventspils, and Liepaja are the largest ports in Latvia. Fishing vessels also use smaller ports like Skulte, Mersrags, Salacgriva, Pavilosta, Roja, and Engure.

Marine fisheries

Latvia’s fishing sector is steeped in longstanding traditions and history. Today, it consists of a coastal fishing fleet, Baltic Sea (including the Gulf of Riga) offshore fleet, and a high-seas fleet sector. In 2020 the total catches by the country’s marine fisheries reached 103 thousand tonnes worth €46.9 million.

The coastal fishing fleet

The fleet segment is represented by 603 fishing boats (data of 2020) with overall lengths equal to or less than 12 m and many of them also without engines. This category constitutes about 90% of the total number of fishing vessels. Many of these boats are used by small and family-owned commercial fishing enterprises for sales or even for self-consumption. This sector plays an important role in the socio-economic environment of small coastal villages, as fishing is usually the major source of subsistence and employment in these areas. The catches include Baltic herring (Clupea harengus), round goby (Neogobius melanostomus), flounder (Platichthys flesus), and smelt (Osmerus eperlana.), as well as inland species distributed in the coastal areas. Although this is the largest fleet by numbers, its overall contribution to the Latvia’s total catch is small, approximately 3%. In 2020 the total catch of the coastal fleet amounted to 3 000 tonnes worth € 1 094 thousand.

Baltic Sea (including the Gulf of Riga) offshore fleet

This sector consists of 49 fishing vessels, which include up to 7.4% of the total fishing fleet (data for 2020). Their lengths are between 12 and 40 m. These vessels operate only in the Baltic Sea (including the Gulf of Riga) offshore waters (ICES subdivisions 22 -32). The main gears used in this fleet segment are midwater and bottom otter trawls. In 2020 the fleet’s catches amounted to 58 thousand tonnes worth €15 910 thousand, which is 56.3% in volume and 34% in value compared to the country’s total marine catch. Major targeted species are sprat (Sprattus sprattus), herring (Clupea harengus), and cod (Gadus morhua).

High-seas fleet

This segment is represented by 8 vessels or 1.2% of the total fishing fleet but it contributes 42 thousand tonnes (40.8%) in volume and €29 858 thousand (63.7%) of the total marine catch (data for 2020). These vessels fish in waters governed by the North East Atlantic Fisheries Commission (NEAFC) and the waters of Islamic Republic of Mauritania and Kingdom of Morocco (under EU Fisheries partnership Agreements), using mainly midwater and bottom otter trawls. The target species in the NEAFC area is redfish (Sebastes spp.) and in the Mauritania and Morocco, horse mackerel (Trachurus spp.), mackerel (Scomber scombrus), sardinella (Sardinella spp.) and sardine (Sardina pilchardus). Latvia also has fishing possibilities in the area governed by Northwest Atlantic Fisheries Organisation (NAFO), but in recent years Latvian vessels have ceased operations in these waters because of low allocations and catches of targeted species (redfish, shrimp).

Inland fisheries

Inland fishing catches amounted to 200 tonnes worth €709 thousand in 2020. This fishing segment has decreased significantly over the last few years due to prohibitions on fishing activities with traps and nets in numerous lakes and rivers in favour of recreational fisheries and angling. However, inland fisheries have never been very dominant in Latvia and only reached a maximum of 612 tonnes in the year 2000. This type of fishing is limited by the number of fishing gears allowed for use in freshwater bodies. In places where fishing is allowed, fishing opportunities have been regularly strengthened by the implementation of governmental restocking plans of valuable fish species. There is no separate register for the vessels involved in commercial inland fishing, instead they are registered together with all other inland vessels/boats.

Around 20 fish species are caught in inland waters, of which river lamprey (Lampetra fluviatilis), freshwater bream (Abramis brama), tench (Tinca tinca), and pike (Esox lucius) are the most common. Angling is a strong competitor to inland fisheries and is mostly linked with the development of ecotourism in Latvia.

Aquaculture

LAV Aqua

Land resources and the availability of inland waters provide Latvia with ideal conditions to develop aquaculture.

Aquaculture is a significant part of the fisheries industry, but is comparatively new and, until recent times, carried out mostly with extensive production methods. Currently, aquaculture is linked only with freshwater sources and there are no farms in the sea coastal areas. There are signs, however, of an interest in marine aquaculture in particular for local shellfish species.

Aquaculture farms registered by the Food and Veterinary Service and active in their field of activity numbered 78 in 2020 and employed 219 persons (full-time equivalent). About 5% of the total number are state farms, whose main activity is valuable fish species reproduction in natural water bodies to compensate for the damage to fish resources caused by the construction of hydropower plants on rivers, pollution of water, and the degradation of natural habitats. The rest are private farms, including ponds for angling. Aquaculture establishments are often situated in areas which are not necessarily directly related to the availability and quantity of freshwater, but rather reflect the traditions and socio-economic interests of landowners.

Over recent years ponds have decreased in number, while their size has increased. Another trend is the growing use of recirculation aquaculture systems (RAS).

In 2020, the aquaculture sector produced 727 tonnes of fish and crustaceans, with a market value of €2.25 million. The main species by far is carp (Cyprinus carpio), followed by trout (Oncorhynchus mykis), catfish (Silurus glanis) and sturgeon (Acipenser spp.). Carp contributed to 74.3% of the total aquaculture production volumes, and trout was the second largest species with an 8.2% share.

Processing and trade

The fish processing industry in Latvia is a well-developed and locally significant sector located basically along the country’s coastline. Historically, Latvian fish processing companies produced both for the domestic and the export markets. In 2020, there were 114 processing companies with total production volumes of 53.4 thousand tonnes worth €166.4 million.

There are many different types of fisheries products made in Latvia, including frozen, salted, and smoked products, preserves, ready to serve products, and canned fish. To extend the range of products, fish processors use marine fish such as Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus), mackerel (Scomber scombrus), sardine (Sardine pilchardus), and sardinella (Sardinella spp.). Freshwater fish species, such as pike (Esox lucius), catfish (Silurus glanis), and common carp (Cyprinus carpio), are used in small quantities.

Latvia maintains a positive trade balance in fish and fish products, with exports consistently exceeding imports. In 2020, the value of exports was €220.6 million, almost €38 million higher than imports, and the volumes of exports reached 104.7 thousand tonnes. Whole frozen fish was the largest product group in terms of volume with over 37% share and 11% in value. Canned products were the largest group in value with over 50% share and the volumes were over 33%. Exports of fish meal (non-human consumption) were over 14% in volume and almost 8% in value.

The majority of the exports of fish for human consumption are traded within the EU market:  over 50% of the total volumes in 2020, of which the major shares went to Lithuania, Estonia, Germany, and Denmark. Prepared and/or preserved fish and seafood products represented 37% of Latvia’s exports to the EU. Outside of the EU, Ukraine was the major receiver of fish and seafood from Latvia, absorbing about 50% of the non-EU export volumes. Belarus, followed by Uzbekistan, and the United States were other important destinations outside of the EU.

In 2020, Latvia imported 93 708 thousand tonnes of fish and seafood products worth €183 million. It allows to supply the fish processing sector with the necessary quantity of raw materials, as well as to expand the assortment of fish products on the domestic market.

Whole frozen fish was the largest product group with 56% of the total imported volumes. Fresh and chilled fish was the second largest group with 17% of the volumes, followed by fish fillets either fresh or frozen with an 11% share. EU countries supplied 74% of Latvia’s import volumes with Lithuania, Sweden, and Estonia being the major sources. Norway, Iceland, and the United Kingdom were the major suppliers from outside the EU. The main import species are salmon, cod, mackerel, and Atlantic herring.

Consumption 

Despite the fact that Latvia can be described as a country with good traditions of fish eating, fish consumption in Latvia is not very stable and varies annually from 10 to 13 kg per person, settling at 10.5 kg in 2019. The Latvian market is saturated with numerous fish products including Latvian-made seafood as well as great number of imported fish products. The biggest demand in Latvia is for fresh and frozen fish. Salted, smoked fish products and non-sterilized preserved fish are also requested by local customers. Sterilized canned fish in the Latvian market is not so popular. Canned tuna, anchovy, fish products from molluscs and shrimp, as well as other preserved fish products in the premium segment also find their buyers in the Latvian market. The consumption of fish products, as well as its structure in rural and urban areas of Latvia varies, with urban areas prevailing over rural communities.

Challenges

According to the EMFF Operational Programme (2014-2020), the main challenges for the Latvian fishing sector are developing the port infrastructure and improving the quality, value added, and traceability of products landed. Other aims include activities related to new markets, product development and higher incomes for those working in the fisheries sector, including fish processing.

In the aquaculture sector, the main aim is increasing the output and the level of value addition of farmed fish products. The EMFAF also will support investments in the innovations or improved processes, technologies, management systems, and marketing measures for fisheries and aquaculture products.

Useful Links for Latvia

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